Remixing the Internet

Online music videos are affected by both convergence culture and remix culture, due to the increasing power held by media audiences in terms of media reproduction and redistribution“.

Anders Fagerjord simply defines remixing as a way of creating new genres from pieces of earlier genres, a perfect example of this concept is YouTube’s distribution of remixed music parody videos, either professionally or user produced.

The news footage of the attempted “rape and robbery” in Huntsville, Alabama went viral in 2010, was later edited into a remixed version that is arguably the most popular remixed video of that year and  has been viewed over 116 million times since it’s upload. This alteration prompted other user-based parodies such as “Sweet Browns” interview.

Fagerjord (2010) refers to YouTube as a remixed platform, as well as producer: “You might call the site a clever remix of a video gallery, a blog-like commenting system, a system of friends and connections as in a social network site such as LinkedIn and a file-sharing site or network”, so not only does it provide a platform for sharing and creating new content out of previous videos, it also contributes to the remix culture itself simply by existing.


Fagerjord, A 2010, After Convergence: YouTube and Remix Culture, International Handbook of Internet Research, pp.187-200.


Transmedia narratives on YouTube.

Youtube is very capable of contributing successfully to various forms of transmedia narratives, as the media platform was built around the access and sharing of multiple contents to millions of users worldwide. Using YouTubes video hosting service, the platform allows user generated parodies to exist on almost any website, circulating and promoting on the internet, gaining easy access to a wide range of audiences. Consumers and producers alike are capable of distorting or creating their own form of narrative and uploading it into the public sphere, where it then proceeds to be seen, distorted again and then re-distributed.

Take for example the production of online parody’s such as Toasty.Tv’s “House of Thrones”, which expands on the television series “Game of Thrones” in a comedic way, outlining the subject content and commenting on and adapting the characters. Through this process, users are  able to extend on the original understanding of the information, and gain a broader perspective.

Henry Jenkins labels fan fiction as an “unauthorized expansion of  media franchises into new directions, which reflect the reader’s desire to “fill in the gaps“, which is exactly what these parodies or “fan fiction” narratives succeed in doing through the use of transmediality.


Produsage and YouTube.

Image source:


Produsage is defined by Axel Bruns as “a collaborative and continuous building and extension of existing content in pursuit of further improvement”. In today’s modern media society, the producer and the consumer converge together to create or change the material they are looking for, YouTube is an excellent example of how produsage and consumerism have merged, which can be further explained through Brun’s four key characteristics.


  1. Organisational Shift:
    “A shift from dedicated individuals and teams as producers to a broader-based, distributed generation of content by a wide community of participants”. YouTube created the shift from professionally produced television programs, to amateur-orchestrated videos that allowed the general public to create and distribute their own content.
  2. Fluid Movement:
    YouTube demonstrates how we as users consume the very content that we produce, for example It’s constant stream of music videos, users are able to view, import, change and re-upload these videos as their own content, share them across the platform, and enable them to be viewed, imported, changed and re-uploaded all over again to any consumer with access to a computer and a video camera or mobile phone.
  3. Un-finished:
    Content uploaded to YouTube is always open to interpretation to it’s consumers, and so with the ease of access to editing and video technology, users are able to distort this content and create entirely new ones. There is no limit to the platforms capacity in terms of video storage, this infinite capability to store exemplifies the possibilities of the platform, rendering it unfinished.
  4. Permissive:
    YouTube is an excellent example of this key factor as once uploaded to the platform, your content is open to distortion and redistribution. Although YouTube has copyright infringement laws that are supposed to protect the user’s original video’s, red flags slip through the filtration process, consumers upload altered versions of originals as their own, and this process is a continuous cycle.




Bruns, Axel (2007) Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content
Creation, In Proceedings Creativity & Cognition 6, Washington, DC.

Citizen Tube.


What was once the domain of professional documentary makers and news journalists, has now evolved into a mass global platform formed by ordinary Men and Women. YouTube has long been known as a dominant amateur video platform, broadcasting the creators as consumers, and consumers as creators. Behind the content are average, everyday citizens, sharing and uploading information from all parts of the world with often no more than a mobile phone or second-rate video camera.

In 2007, YouTube users saw the potential of broadcasting themselves as self-declared journalists, and launched a video web blog known as Citizen Tube. Here, citizens from all over the world share their first-hand experiences with news as it happens, and has emerged as one of the best places to go to see raw, live footage. Major news corporations were not blind to the potential that YouTube offered in regards to original content, and teamed together with Citizen Tube to launch a new platform to gateway the content between the public and the media, this is known as YouTube Direct.

The social media platform has undoubtedly revolutionised the way we see news, instead of relying on the media for footage and facts, we rely on each other for the truth. Although there is one down side to YouTube news sharing, “Giving credit for videos can get blurry, a problem stemming from a lack of clear ethical guidelines”.

This video really hits home for me, i spend so much time on here wasting my life trying to connect with people i barely know, when i could be making real connections with real people face to face and getting to know them.
Amazingly done, something everybody needs to watch.